The end of the Civil War in 1865 brought three constitutional amendments which abolished slavery, made former slaves citizens of the United States, and gave all men the right to vote, regardless of race. However, measures such as literacy tests and poll taxes were used by many states to continue the disenfranchisement of African-Americans and Jim Crow laws helped those same states to enforce segregation and condone race-based violence from groups like the Ku Klux Klan.
These Negroes, they’re getting pretty uppity these days and that’s a problem for us since they’ve got something now they never had before, the political pull to back up their uppityness.
Now we’ve got to do something about this, we’ve got to give them a little something, just enough to quiet them down, not enough to make a difference. For if we don’t move at all, then their allies will line up against us and there’ll be no way of stopping them, we’ll lose the filibuster and there’ll be no way of putting a brake on all sorts of wild legislation. It’ll be Reconstruction all over again.”
-President Lyndon B. Johnson
Many years passed with minimal action taken to enforce civil rights. In 1963, Pres. John F. Kennedy decided it was time to act, proposing the most sweeping civil rights legislation to date.
On June 2, 1964, Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act, which was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. The Act prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin, in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal.
a work in progress Congress expanded the act in subsequent years, passing additional legislation in order to move toward more equality for African-Americans, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Who Is Zooming Who?
From President Woodrow Wilson’s 1915 endorsement of film ‘The Birth of a Nation’ to bias news reporting techniques of today, manipulation and leverage fake media have long been a strategy to undermine unity. Pres. Johnson is noted to state ”If you can convince the lowest white man that he’s better than the best colored man, he won’t notice you’re picking his pocket.”.
In the 50+ years since the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was signed into law, significant progress toward guaranteeing the equality of all Americans regardless of race, ethnicity, gender, disability, religion, or sexual orientation, has been made. Yet, it is clear, we still have a long way to go. #policy #pawnsandpolitics #oldplaybook